First of all : fasting Ashura repents the last year’s sins according to our beloved prophet (PBUH) :
I seek from Allah that fasting on the day of 'Arafa may atone for the sins of the preceding and the coming years, and I seek from Allah that fasting on the Day of Ashura may atone for the sins of the preceding year.
And this is a blessing from Allah (SWT) upon us, giving us a day to fast to erase one year of sins and Allah (SWT) is the most generous and merciful. Our beloved prophet (PBUH) used to look for Ashura to fast it due to the value and importance of this day, ibn Abbas said: “I never saw the Messenger of Allah so keen to fast any day and give it priority over any other than this day, the Day of Ashura, and this month, meaning Ramadan.”
Secondly: the reason that the prophet used to fast and encouraged people to do it is what ibn Abbas said: our beloved prophet (PBUH) came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the Day of Ashura. He asked them about that. They replied, "This is a good day, the day on which Allah rescued Bani Israel from their enemy. So, Moses fasted this day." The Prophet (PBUH) said, "We have more claim over Moses than you." So, the Prophet fasted on that day and ordered (the Muslims) to fast (on that day).
And in another narrating for Muslim her said: on this day Allah (SWT) saved Mosses and his people and drowned the pharaoh and his people
( Muslim added in his narrating : thanks to Allah we Already Fast that day )
Al Bukhari added ( and we fast it to glorify it)
Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar said: Imam Ahmad quoted Ibn Abbas as an increase in the reason for the fast of the Jews: That the ship of Noah docked on Mount Judy that day and Noah and Moses, fasted that day thank to Allah (SWT).
Third: Atonement of sins that is achieved by fasting on the Day of Ashura, which is meant by (minor sins)
And fasting on the day of ‘Ashura’ is an expiation for one year and fasting on the day of ‘Arafah is an expiation for two years, There are times when an answer to du'aa 'would be accepted by the angels and his sins will be repent.
Narrated `Aisha: our beloved prophet (PBUH) ordered (Muslims) to fast on it till the fasting in the month of Ramadan was prescribed; whereupon the Prophet (PBUH) said, "He who wants to fast (on 'Ashura') may fast, and he who does not want to fast may not fast."
A community of scholarships with vast knowledge of Islam and tradition went ahead and came to a conclusion that Ashura is the 10th of Muharram based on the Hadith ; and from them Ahmad and Malik ; based on the hadith and concluded it
The imam Nawawai said: our beloved prophet (PBUH) used to fast that day in Makah, then when he emigrated he found that the Jew is also fasting that day by Inspiration or diligent but not by him telling them to fast on that day, and Ibn Rajab said: some tales say that our beloved prophet (PBUH) had four cases in fasting the day of Ashura: he was fasting on that day in Makah and he didn’t ordered to fast it, then when he went to Al Madena he found thatthe people of the book fasting it and they value it and our beloved prophet (PBUH) liked to agree with them in the things which had not been ordered, so he ordered the Muslims to fast on that day and assert it, then when the imposition of Ramadan came he left the assert, and in our beloved prophet (PBUH) last days he sum another day to it in Contrary to the people of the book, and probably it was not an order.
For Ashura there are two stories , one is old and one is new. Yet each one of them has meanings , points and teachings that are valuable and important , each one of these stories has connection to prophet and each story is connected to Bani Israel
The old story started 100 years ago when the pharaoh tortured Bani Israel, so prophet mosses peace upon him gathered his people to run from the pharaoh but the pharaoh followed him, so that day Allah (SWT) inspired Mosses peace upon him to hit the sea with his staff, Allah (SWT) said: ( Then We inspired to Moses, "Strike with your staff the sea," and it parted, and each portion was like a great towering mountain)
When pharaoh saw that great sign, he didn’t learn and kept on with his injustice and commanded his troops to follow Mosses peace upon him and his people, Allah (SWT) drowned him and saved Mosses and his people from Bani Israel , Allah (SWT) says : ( And We delivered Bani Israel from the shameful doom ) and this was the end of the first story
The second story is also hundred years old but still newer compared to the first one, It is also connected to bani isreal but also has a more important connection to Muslims,; that day (Ashura) the Jews were celebrating and our beloved prophet PBUH saw them fasting that day in the MADINA, and the prophet used to fast it before seeing them, IBN Abbas said : our beloved prophet (PBUH) came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the Day of Ashura. He asked them about that. They replied, "This is a good day, the day on which Allah rescued Bani Israel from their enemy. So, Moses fasted this day. ( Muslim added in his narrating : thanks to Allah we Already Fast that day) and in a narrating for Al Bukhari ( and we fast it to glorify it) " The Prophet (PBUH) said, "We have more claim over Moses than you." So, the Prophet fasted on that day and ordered (the Muslims) to fast (on that day).
And in another narrating for Muslim her said: on this great day Allah (SWT) saved Mosses and his people and drowned the pharaoh and his people
Both stories are important to us in these days, and our need to what it contains from life lessons, since it touches the Muslims daily lives
Two important things:
The happiness and sadness of a Muslims are characters of a Muslims, in the hadith: "The believers in their mutual kindness, compassion and sympathy are just like one body. When one of the limbs suffers, the whole body responds to it with wakefulness and fever".
That’s why our beloved prophet (PBUH) invited us to fast Ashura; we got to fast it, asking from Allah (SWT) to help all the Muslims in the Arab counties and all Muslims countries
Thinking on this day, which Allah (SWT) saved Mousa peace upon him and his people , fills the soul with huge hope that victory will come , and every time the Muslim listens to Quran versus that tells the hardship that Mousa peace upon him and his people went through and how Allah (SWT) saved them in a great spectacle , it Gladdens and heartened to reassure the promise of Allah (SWT) of the recontinue victory of the believers and saves them from their enemy , Allah (SWT) says : And hold firmly to the rope of Allah all together and do not become divided. And remember the favor of Allah upon you - when you were enemies and He brought your hearts together and you became, by His favor, brothers. And you were on the edge of a pit of the Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus does Allah make clear to you His verses that you may be guided.
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